Additional Resources

Exhibition Lenders:

Heritage Malta:

National Museum of Archaeology:

Gozo Museum of Archaeology:


Select Bibliography:

Barrowclough, D.A., and C. Malone, eds. Cult in Context: Reconsidering Ritual in Archaeology. 2007.

Bonanno, A. “Malta’s Changing Role in Mediterranean Cross-Currents: From Prehistory to Roman Times.” In Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents, ed. S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes, pp. 1–12. 1991.

Cilia, D., ed. Malta Before History: The World’s Oldest Free-Standing Stone Architecture. 2004.

Eneix, L. “Of Temples and Goddesses in Malta.” Pop. Arch. 2 (Apr. 2011).

Evans, J.D. The Prehistoric Antiquities of the Maltese Islands: A Survey. 1971.

Gimbutas, M. The Language of the Goddess: Unearthing the Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization. 1989.

Grima, R. “Landscape, Territories, and the Life-Histories of Monuments in Temple Period Malta.” J. Mediterr. Arch. 21 (2008): 35–56.

Guilaine, J. Méditerranée mégalithique: Dolmens, hypogées, sanctuaires. 2011.

Hoskin, M. Tombs, Temples and Their Orientations: A New Perspective on Mediterranean Prehistory. 2001.

Knapp, A.B. “Insularity and Island Identity in the Prehistoric Mediterranean.” In Mediterranean Crossroads, ed. S. Antoniadou and A. Pace, pp. 37–62. 2007.

Malone, C. “Metaphor and Maltese Art: Explorations in the Temple Period.” J. Mediterr. Arch. 21 (1) (2008): 81–109.

Malone, C., S. Stoddart, A. Bonanno and D.H. Trump, eds., with T. Gouder and A. Pace. Mortuary Customs in Prehistoric Malta: Excavations at the Brochtorff Circle at Xagħra (1987–94). 2009.

Pace, A. The Tarxien Temples, Tarxien. 2006.

Renfrew, C. Before Civilization: The Radiocarbon Revolution and Prehistoric Europe. 1973.

Richards, P.M, R.E.M. Hedges, I. Walton, S. Stoddart, and C. Malone. “Neolithic Diet at the Brochtorff Circle, Malta.” Eur. J. Arch. 4 (Aug. 2001): 253–62.

Robb, J. “Island Identities: Ritual, Travel and the Creation of Difference in Neolithic Malta.” Eur. J. Arch. 4 (Aug. 2001): 175–202.

Rountree, K. “The Case of the Missing Goddess: Plurality, Power, and Prejudice in Reconstructions of Malta’s Neolithic Past.” J. Fem. Stud. Rel. 19 (Fall 2003): 25–43.

Ruggles, C., and G. Urton, eds. Skywatching in the Ancient World: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy. 2010.

Stoddart, S. “Long-Term Dynamics of an Island Community: Malta, 5500 bc–ad 2000.” In Social Dynamics of the Prehistoric Central Mediterranean, ed. R.H. Tykot et al., pp. 137–48. 1999.

Stroud, K. Ħaġar Qim and Mnajdra: Prehistoric Temples, Qrendi. 2010.

Sultana, S. The National Museum of Archaeology, Valleta: The Neolithic Period. 2006.

Torpiano, A.“The Engineering of the Prehistoric Megalithic Temples in Malta.” In Sustainability of Constructions: Towards a Better Built Environment, pp. 559ff. 2011.

Trump, D.H. Malta: Prehistory and Temples. 2002.

Trump, D.H. Skorba: Excavations Carried Out on Behalf of the National Museum of Malta, 1961–1963. 1966.

Turnbull, D. “Performance and Narrative, Bodies and Movement in the Construction of Places and Objects, Spaces and Knowledges: The Case of the Maltese Megaliths.” Theor. Cult. Soc. 19 (5/6) (2002): 125–43.

Vella Gregory, I. The Human Form in Neolithic Malta. 2005.