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Additional Resources

Exhibition Lenders:

Israel Antiquity Authority:

The Israel Museum, Jerusalem:

Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem:


Select Bibliography:

Aharoni, Y. 1961. “The Expedition to the Judean Desert.” Israel Exploration Journal 11: 11–24.

Alon, D., and T. E. Levy. 1989. “The Archaeology of Cult and the Chalcolithic Sanctuary at Gilat.” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 2: 163–221.

Alon, D., and T. E. Levy. 1991. “Violin-Shaped Figurines and the Cult at Chacholithic Gilat.” Ariel 10–101: 166–71 (in Hebrew).

Amiran, R. 1970. Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land: From Its Beginnings in the Neolithic Period to the End of the Iron Age. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Bar-Adon, P. 1962. “Expedition C—The Cave of the Treasure.” Israel Exploration Journal 12: 213–26.

Bar-Adon, P. 1980. The Cave of the Treasure: The Finds from the Caves in Nahal Mishmar. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.

Barber, E. J. W. 1991. Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bar-Yosef, O., and E. Ayalon. 2001. “Chalcolithic Ossuaries: What Do They Imitate and Why?” Qadmoniot 34: 34–43 (in Hebrew).

Beck, P. 1989. “Notes on the Style and Iconography of the Chalcolithic Hoard from Nahal Mishmar.” In Essays in Ancient Civilization Presented to Helene J. Kantor, ed. A. Leonard Jr. and B. B. Williams, 39–54. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 47. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Bourke, S. J., et al. 2004. “The End of the Chalcolithic Period in the South Jordan Valley: New 14C Determinations from Teleilat Ghassul, Jordan.” Radiocarbon 46: 315–23.

Cameron, D. O. 1981. The Ghassulian Wall Paintings. London: Kenyon-Deane.

Davidovich, U.  2013. “The Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age Transition: A View from the Judean Desert Caves, Southern Levant.” Paleorient 39: 125–138.

Epstein, C. 1998. The Chalcolithic Culture of the Golan. IAA Reports 4. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.

Eshel, H. and Zissu, B. 2002. “Region VIII: Survey and Excavations of Caves along the Cliff Slopes of the Triangulation Point 86, on the Fringes of Jebel Ma‘ar el-Bas.” In “Survey and Excavations of Caves in the Northern Judean Desert (CNJD)–1993 (Part II),” ed. L. Wexler. Atiqot 41: 117–23.

Gilead, I., ed. 1995. Grar: A Chalcolithic Site in the Northern Negev. Beer-Sheva 7. Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.

Gopher, A., and T. Tsuk, eds. 1996. The Nahal Qanah Cave: Earliest Gold in the Southern Levant. Monograph Series 12. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University.

Khalaily, H. 2002.  “Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery and Other Finds from Caves VIII/9 and VIII/28.” In “Survey and Excavations of Caves in the Northern Judean Desert (CNJD)–1993 (Part II),” ed. L. Wexler. ‘Atiqot 41: 129–41.

Levy, T., ed. 2006. Archaeology, Anthropology and Cult: The Sanctuary at Gilat, Israel. London: Equinox.

Lovell, J. L. 2001. The Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods in the Southern Levant: New Data from the Site of Teleilat Ghassul, Jordan. BAR International Series 974. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Milevski, I. 2010.“Visual Expressions of Craft Production in the Chalcolithic of the Southern Levant.” In Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 5 May–10 May 2009, Sapienza–Universita di Roma. Vol. 3, ed. P. Matthiae et al., 423–29. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Moorey, P. R. S. 1988. “The Chalcolithic Hoard from Nahal Mishmar, Israel, in Context.” World Archaeology 20: 171–89.

Namdar, D. et al. 2009. “The Contents of Unusual Cone-shaped Vessels (Cornets) from the Chalcolithic of the Southern Levant.” Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 629–36.

Nativ, A. 2008. “A Note on Chalcolithic Ossuary Jars: A Metaphor for Metamorphosis.” Tel Aviv 35: 209–14.

North, R. 1961. Ghassul 1960 Excavation Report. Analecta Biblica 14. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1961.

Perrot, J. 1955. “The Excavations at Tell Abu Matar, Near Beersheba.” Israel Exploration Journal 5: 17–41, 73–84, 167–89.

Perrot, J. 1956. “Beersheba: Bir es-Safadi.” Israel Exploration Journal 6: 126–27.

Scheftelowitz, N., and Oren, E. 2004. Giv’at Ha-Oranim: A Chalcolithic Site Near Nahal Beit Arif. Salvage Excavation Reports 1. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University.

Schick, T. 1988. “Nahal Hemar Cave: Cordage, Basketry, and Fabrics. ‘Atiqot (English Series) 18: 31–42.

Schick, T. 1995. “A 10,000 Year Old Comb from Wadi Murrabba’at in the Judean Desert.” ‘Atiqot 27: 199–202.

Schick, T., ed. 1998. The Cave of the Warrior: A Fourth Millennium Burial in the Judean Desert. IAA Reports 5. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.

Schick, T. 2002. “The Early Basketry and Textiles from Caves in the Northern Judean Desert.” In “Survey and Excavations of Caves in the Northern Judean Desert (CNJD)–1993 (Part II),” ed. L. Wexler. ‘Atiqot 41: 223–39.

Seaton, P. 2008. Chalcolithic Cult and Risk Management at Teleilat Ghassul: The Area E Sanctuary. Monographs of the Sydney University Teleilat Ghassul Project 2; BAR International Series 1864. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Sebbane, M. 1998. “Maceheads in Canaan from the 5th through 4th Millennia bce: Typology, Technology, Use and Foreign Relations.” Master’s thesis, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (in Hebrew).

Segal, I., and Kamenski, A. 2002. “Chalcolithic Copper Objects from Cave VIII/28.” In “Survey and Excavations of Caves in the Northern Judean Desert (CNJD)–1993 (Part II),” ed. L. Wexler. ‘Atiqot 41: 157–62.

Shalem, D., Z. Gal, and H. Smithline. 2012. “Peqi’in: A Late Chalcolithic Burial Site in Upper Galilee, Israel.” Near Eastern Archaeology 74: 196–215.

Tadmor, M., et al. 1995. “The Nahal Mishmar Hoard from the Judean Desert: Technology, Composition and Provenance.” ‘Atiqot (English Series) 27: 95–148.

Ussishkin, D. 1971. “The ‘Ghassulian’ Temple in Ein Gedi and the Origin of the Hoard from Nahal Mishmar.” The Biblical Archaeologist 34: 23–39.

Ussishkin, D. 1980. “The Ghassulian Shrine at En-Gedi.” Tel Aviv 7: 1–44.

Ussishkin, D. 2012. “The Chalcolithic Temple at En-Gedi: Fifty Years after Its Excavation.” Qadmoniot 144: 71–78 (in Hebrew).

van den Brink, E. C. M. 1998. “An Index to Chalcolithic Mortuary Caves in Israel.” Israel Exploration Journal 48: 165–73.

van den Brink, E. C. M. 2005. “Chalcolithic Burial Caves in Coastal and Inland Israel.” In Shoham (North): Late Chalcolithic Burial Caves in the Lod Valley, Israel, ed. van den Brink and R. Gophna, 175–89. IAA Reports 27. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.

Winter-Livneh, R., T. Svoray, and I. Gilead. 2010. “Settlement Patterns, Social Complexity and Agricultural Strategies during the Chalcolithic Period in the Northern Negev, Israel.” Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 284–94.